Prenatal DHA Sources

This page shows cited sources for our article on Prenatal DHA.

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  2. Lin, Y. H., & Salem, N., Jr. (2007). Whole body distribution of deuterated linoleic and a-linolenic acids and their metabolites in the rat. Retrieved 2016, from http://www.jlr.org/content/48/12/2709.full.pdf

  3. Simopoulos, A. P. (2000, April 03). Human Requirement for N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/content/79/7/961.long

  4. Burdge, G. C., & Wootton, S. A. (2002, June 19). Conversion of a-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=/BJN/BJN88_04/S0007114502001952a.pdf&code=8f362c5fd11d10307fc0936b8a4b398c

  5. Davis, B. C., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2003, September). Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: Current knowledge and practical implications. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/3/640S.long

  6. Thorsdottir, I., Birgisdottir, B. E., Halldorsdottir, S., & Geirsson, R. T. (2004). Association of Fish and Fish Liver Oil Intake in Pregnancy with Infant Size at Birth among Women of Normal Weight before Pregnancy in a Fishing Community. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/160/5/460.full

  7. Daniel, C. R., Cross, A. J., Koebnick, C., & Sinha, R. (2011, April). Trends in meat consumption in the United States. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045642/

  8. Olsen, S. F., Sorensen, J. D., Secher, N. J., Hedeaard, M., Henriksen, T. B., Hansen, H. S., & Grant, A. (1992, April 25). Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1349049

  9. Strobel, C., Jahreis, G., & Kuhnt, K. (2012, October 30). Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543232/

  10. Maternal Intake of Seafood Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Infant Health: A Review of the Evidence. (2012, February). Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/sites/default/files/nutrition_insights_uploads/Insight46.pdf

  11. Rosell, M. S., Lloyd-Wright, Z., Appleby, P. N., Sanders, T. A., Allen, N. E., & Key, T. J. (2005, August). Long-chain nā€“3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/82/2/327.long

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (2016, November). Retrieved June 21, 2017, from https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional//

  13. Greenberg, J. A., MD, Bell, S. J., DSc, RD, & Ausdal, W. V. (2008). Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2621042/

  14. Higdon, J., PhD, Drake, V. J., PhD, Angelo, G., PhD, & Jump, D. B., PhD. (2014, May). Essential Fatty Acids. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids

  15. Elias, S. L., & Innis, S. M. (2001, April). Infant plasma trans, nāˆ’6, and nāˆ’3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids are related to maternal plasma fatty acids, length of gestation, and birth weight and length. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/73/4/807.long

  16. Conquer, J. A., & Holub, B. J. (1997, March). Dietary docosahexaenoic acid as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid in vegetarians and omnivores. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9076673

  17. Lipids in early development. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/v4700e/v4700e0c.htm

  18. Van Goor, S. A., Dijck-Brouwer, D. A., Doornbos, B., Erwich, J. J., Schaafsma, A., Muskiet, F. A., & Hadders-Algra, M. (2010, January). Supplementation of DHA but not DHA with arachidonic acid during pregnancy and lactation influences general movement quality in 12-week-old term infants. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703327

  19. Calder, P. C. (2007). Dietary arachidonic acid: Harmful, harmless or helpful? Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=/BJN/BJN98_03/S0007114507761779a.pdf&code=fd9cd7bfc91882903395fd739ff44a29

  20. Simopoulos, A. P. (2002, October). The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12442909

  21. Rett, B. S., & Whelan, J. (2011, June 10). Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: A systematic review. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-7075-8-36

  22. Brenna, J. T., Varamini, B., Jensen, R. G., Diersen-Schade, D. A., Boettcher, J. A., & Arterburn, L. M. (2007, June). Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwide. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/85/6/1457.long

  23. Mann, N. J., Johnson, L. G., Warrick, G. E., & Sinclair, A. J. (1995, October). The arachidonic acid content of the Australian diet is lower than previously estimated. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7562087

  24. Diau, G., Hsieh, A. T., Sarkadi-Nagy, E. A., Wijendran, V., Natanielsz, P. W., & Brenna, J. T. (2005, June 23). The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-3-11

  25. Simopoulos, A. P. (2006, August 28). Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: Nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.nutrasource.ca/files/omega_3_chronic_nov2006.pdf

  26. Recommendations for Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Adults. (2004, June). Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.issfal.org/news-links/resources/publications/PUFAIntakeReccomdFinalReport.pdf

  27. Papanikolaou, Y., Brooks, J., Reider, C., & Fulgoni, V. L. (2014, April 02). U.S. adults are not meeting recommended levels for fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake: Results of an analysis using observational data from NHANES 2003ā€“2008. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992162/

  28. Martin, W. (2015, April 05). Peak Fish and Sustainable Food's Last Mile Problem. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://willmartin.com/peak-fish-and-sustainable-foods-last-mile-problem/

  29. Andrews, R. (n.d.). All About Algae Supplements. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-algae